Lensky portage

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Lenin's Wool - fiber between rivers Ilim and Lena, used in XVIIXIX centuries. One of two (along with Chechui portage) routes to Lena, an important transport route in the development of the north of Siberia and the Far East. He passed from the Ilimsky fortress through the Mutsky raft yard and locked himself up in the Ust-Kutsky fortress, opening the waterway to Yakutia and to the north of the Far East.

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[to rule] Route

It began in Ilimsky jail up Ilim up to the Cossack River (right tributary). From the headwaters of the Cossacks, on land, ships were dragged up to the headwaters of the Flour, then descended into the mouth, where the Mutskoe raft was located. From here, on rafts, ships and cargoes descended along the Coupe and Kuta Rivers to the Lena, where the Ust-Kut ostrog stood.

[to rule] History

The first Russian explorer, passed with Ilima on Lena, is considered Vasily Bugor. From Yeniseisk he sailed along the Angara, then along the Ilim, from where he climbed up Igirme. From its headwater detachment he drove to the river Kupa, which he went down to Kuta and further to Lena.

According to the results of his expedition to the mouth of the Kuta Ivan Galkinwhich is considered the discoverer of portage. Unlike the Bug, whose path was to the north and longer, Ivan Galkin He took the cue from the local population - the Evenks, who indicated a shorter way to Lena.

In 1630 he was on Ilim, where he founded the Ilimsk fortress, and in 1631 year, for the first time passing through the Lensky portage, reached the mouth of the Kuta, where he laid the Ust-Kut burg.

In the second half XVII century on the route Lensky portage formed a chain of small (in one or two courtyards) villages, whose population was entrusted with the service of portage. For example, in October 1746 A year ago, a similar order came to the Ust-Kut shopkeeper from Ilimsk:

The same according to the news ... through the Lensky portage of the forest heaped up. To order to dress up the plowed peasants to clean the road through Kaimon dredger to the Mutsky ratcheting ground

Prikazchik Ilimsk

To which the clerk reported:

The thirtieth number in width of five is sazhen cleaned, and in the necessary and close places there are 4 sazhen. And the distance from the Kuta River is cleaned in the ridge for 10 versts and done. [36 peasants were sent to this.]

The clerk of the Ust-Kutsky prison

В XVIIXVIII For centuries, Lensky portage was one of the key transport arteries for the development of the north of Siberia and the Far East. Many Cossack detachments and expeditions, including the expeditions of Dmitry and Khariton Laptev, Vladimir Atlasov and Stepan Krasheninnikov, Grigory Shelikhov, Gennady Nevelsky, left Ilimsk prison. Ilimsk was also a starting point for the North expedition of Vitus Bering.

According to the Lensky trail from Yakutsk, yasak, collected from the local population, was also transported to Moscow. Here is what Pentecostal Michael Kolesov looked like when he was sent to Yakutsk with the “yasachny treasury”:

“To go from the Yakut jail up by the Lena River, day and night, hastily, without delay anywhere, with great care.” And on arrival in Ust-Kut, in the same plains by the Kutoya and Kupoy rivers, go to the mouth of the r. Flour, where “to take carts under the treasury of the great sovereign from the driver on the roadside and go through Lensky portage in Ilimsky ostrog. And having arrived ... in the Ilimsky burg, at the stolnik and at the governor, take ships and carts on the roadside and sail to the Yenisei burg, and having sailed to the Yenisei burg, beat the head and the governor on the roadway under the treasury of the great sovereign to order to give carts and escort and go to Makovsky jail, without delaying anywhere, and in Makovsky chateau of the great sovereign, the treasury is fed up with a plateau, what you can lift and carry from the water reliably and fearlessly float Ketu river to Ketsky jail, and from Ketsky jail to Obi river and Ob River to Narym, to Surgut, to Ir Tyshsky mouth and up the Irtysh and Tobolsk, and from Tobolsk to Tyumen, to the Turin prison, to Verkhoturye, through Verkhoturye and Russian cities to Moscow to go quickly, day and night, without any bags.[1]

Portage used before XIX century. Later from Ilima before Ust-Kut was laid Ilimskiy tractwhose route almost coincided with portage.


[to rule] Description of Lensky portage in Ilimsk arable land

B.N. Sherstobaev in "Ilimsk arable land" gives the following description of the Lensky portage:

From Ilimsk walked the famous Lensky portage to the mouth of the r. Flour where there was a cemetery. From here in spring it was possible to descend along the rivers Coupe and Kuta to the mouth of the river. Kuty at its confluence with Lena. Here stood the second prison, locking the eastern end of the Lensky portage - Ust-Kutsky. Here ships were equipped - barges, kochi, plaques, kayuki and rafts on a long journey down the Lena to Yakutsk bar. The path from Flour to Ust-Kut prison could be done along the wheel road that went along the left bank of the r. Kutas

Anyone who went from Lena to Angara and back inevitably moved along this single road — along the Lena trail — and also inevitably came into the view of the Ilimsk customs commanders who registered the transportation of goods and money at three points: in Ilimsk, at the mouth of the river. Flour and on the mouth of the river. Kutas To pass them was completely impossible.

After "inspecting" the goods, the kisses wrote down in the customs book - who passed, industrial or commercial person, or peasant, what goods he had, for what amount, where purchased, whether there was a passing certificate, whether the freight was paid for by duty. In this case, all kinds of fees were collected on the portage. For example, already for the very appearance on the portage, a clear duty on altyn per person was charged, then the indicated duties "on the axis of altyn for two money." A tenth part of the customs valuation was paid from the delivered goods - from the ruble to the hryvnia; if the goods were sold in the portage, then they were exacted on "by money on the money for a week", that is, for a trading place every week. If the traveler used the inn, he was charged a special fee. In the case of the sale of goods of local origin, the so-called "Ilimsky purchase," the tax payment was charged on the altyn from the ruble, and for the plowed peasants selling bread, the buyer had to pay two money from the ruble, that is, 1/100 part of the cost. Since the weighing of sold or stored goods was carried out on state scales, then for this operation a "weight" of money from a pood was paid. If sable was brought, the tenth sable went to the treasury. It may seem to the reader that the list of fees covers all imaginable objects of taxation. No, it turns out not all. If livestock was sold, then 2 percent of the ruble money was charged to the peasants and servicemen from the amount of the sale, from the trade and industrial people - according to the national budget, i.e. 3 times more. In addition, from the merchants were taken "horny" on the altyn from the head of cattle, and for the horses - "curly" on the altyn from the horse. If a traveler, commercial or industrial person had no goods and did not buy anything, then it would seem that he, after paying yavchego and these fees, quietly went on. No, because he could have money. And for the carriage of money levied a fee. And that's not it. So far, they have been charged with prizhego only for their arrival, for their attendance. But there is still a vacation. And here for the vacation "on the great Lena River" was charged "departure of" 4 money of printed duties per person and a ruble of money and goods. The list of fees is not over yet.

The departing person could ride his ship along Kuta or along Lena. In this case, they took "from the kochi and from the barges and from the benches and from the gauges planted duty on the hryvnia from the fathoms". Departures were taken when traveling on Angara "in the Yenisei burg and in Siberian cities and to Ruse". For storage of goods were taken "anbar" money.

- Ilim arable land [2]

From Ilimsky fortress cargoes were transferred all year round, mostly in winter, to the mouth of the river. Flour, at its confluence with r. Kupu, where there was a cemetery where the construction of barges, planks and boats took place. Since these vessels with the opening of the rivers were sent to Lena, along which they went to the Yakutsk fortress and back they did not return, the almost continuous shipbuilding was carried out to the raft yard. Here, and the mouth of the river. Flour, in Ilimsk itself and in Ust-Kutsky prison, the sovereigns lived carpenters. Ust-Kut carpenters served and "Ust-Mutskoe" cemetery. On the map of Remezov, near the Ust-Kut jail, a note is made: "In Ust-Kutsky, the Ili annual carpentry (it may be more correct to say ship's) carpenters live."

- Ilim arable land [3]


[to rule] Notes

  1. History of shipping in Russia
  2. Ilim arable land. B.N. Sherstobaev, Irkutsk Regional State Publishing House, 1949, V. 1, pp. 98-101
  3. Ilim arable land. B.N. Sherstobaev, Irkutsk Regional State Publishing House, 1949, V. 1, p. 108


[to rule] Sources

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